Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

The first AVHRR instrument was a 4-channel radiometer, while the latest version (known as AVHRR/3, first carried on the NOAA-15 platform launched in May 1998) acquires data in a 6th channel located at 1.6 micrometer.

Operational procedures

NOAA has at least two polar-orbiting meteorological satellites in orbit at all times, with one satellite crossing the equator in the early morning and early evening and the other crossing the equator in the afternoon and late evening. The primary sensor on board both satellites is the AVHRR instrument. Morning-satellite data are most commonly used for land studies, while data from both satellites are used for atmosphere and ocean studies. Together they provide twice-daily global coverage, and ensure that data for any region of the earth are no more than six hours old. The swath width, the width of the area on the Earth's surface that the satellite can "see", is approximately 2,500 kilometers (about 1,500 miles). The satellites orbit between 833 or 870 kilometers (+/- 19 kilometers, between 516 and 541 miles) above the surface of the Earth.

The highest ground resolution that can be obtained from the current AVHRR instruments is 1.1 kilometer (0.7 miles), which means that the satellite records discrete information for areas on the ground that are 1.1 by 1.1 kilometers. This smallest recorded unit is called a pixel. AVHRR data have been collected continuously since 1981.


An image of global sea surface t

Applications

The primary purpose of these instruments is to monitor clouds and to measure the thermal emission (cooling) of the Earth. These sensors have proven useful for a number of other applications, however, including the surveillance of land surfaces, ocean state, aerosols, etc. AVHRR data are particularly relevant to study climate change and environmental degradation because of the comparatively long records of data already accumulated (over 20 years). The main difficulty associated with these investigations is to properly deal with the many limitations of these instruments, especially in the early period (sensor calibration, orbital drift, limited spectral and directional sampling, etc.).

The AVHRR instrument also flies on the MetOp series of satellites. The three planned MetOp satellites are part of the Eumetsat Polar System (EPS) run by Eumetsat.

NASA is currently experimenting with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Terra and Aqua earth observation research spacecraft.NOAA and NASA are currently developing a follow-on to AVHRR and MODIS for the operational NPOESS constellation.

Calibration and validation

Remote sensing applications of the AVHRR sensor are based on validation (matchup) techniques of co-located ground observations and satellite observations. Alternatively, radiative transfer calculations are performed. There are specialized codes which allow simulation of the AVHRR observable brightness temperatures and radiances in near infrared and infrared channels.

Launch and service dates

Satellite name Launch date Service start Service end
TIROS-N 13 Oct 1978 19 Oct 1978 30 Jan 1980
NOAA-6 27 Jun 1979 27 Jun 1979 16 Nov 1986
NOAA-7 23 Jun 1981 24 Aug 1981 7 Jun 1986
NOAA-8 28 Mar 1983 3 May 1983 31 Oct 1985
NOAA-9 12 Dec 1984 25 Feb 1985 11 May 1994
NOAA-10 17 Sep 1986 17 Nov 1986 Present
NOAA-11 24 Sep 1988 8 Nov 1988 13 Sep 1994
NOAA-12 13 May 1991 14 May 1991 15 Dec 1994
NOAA-14 30 Dec 1994 30 Dec 1994 23 May 07
NOAA-15 13 May 1998 13 May 1998 Present
NOAA-16 21 Sep 2000 21 Sep 2000 Present
NOAA-17 24 Jun 2002 24 Jun 2002 Present
NOAA-18 20 May 2005 30 Aug 2005 Present
NOAA-19 6 Feb 2009 2 Jun 2009 Present
MetOp-A 19 Oct 2006 20 Jun 2007 Present
TIROS/NOAA dates from USGS website and from NOAA POES Status website

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org