China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) / Ziyuan series (International), Spacecraft - Earth observation
China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) / Ziyuan series (International), Spacecraft - Earth observation

Current Status
The third China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite, CBERS-2B, was launched by Long March 4B on 19 September 2007 and the mission was terminated on 16 April 2010. CBERS-1 ceased operations in August 2003. CBERS 2 was launched on 21 October 2003 as an identical replacement and was retired from service on 10 January 2009. CBERS-3 and 4 are expected to be launched in 2011 and 2014, respectively. Note that the name Ziyuan is also used by a series of Chinese Earth imaging satellites (see separate entry under Jianbing).

An agreement calling for the development and launch of two remote sensing satellites was signed in November 1993, between China and Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (INPE). The project was 70 per cent funded by China and 30 per cent by Brazil. The Chinese name for the satellites is Ziyuan, meaning 'Resource'. The joint programme is called the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS). The satellites are primarily used for monitoring changes in land use and natural resources, e.g. estimation of forest reserves, crop land, damage due to floods and earthquakes; and environmental pollution.In June 2004, INPE introduced free access to CBERS images over the internet. By July 2009 more than 500,000 of these images had been acquired by 20,000 private and public institutions. In 2009, free access to images for African countries was introduced by both Brazil and China.The CBERS satellite consists of a payload module and a platform. The main body is box-shaped, with a single solar array on one side of the satellite. Thermal control is mainly passive, such as thermal coatings, multilayer insulation blankets, and heat pipes. Only in special circumstances is an electric heater employed. The power supply subsystem includes a solar array, NiCd batteries, regulators and converters. The satellite is designed to operate in a Sun-synchronous orbit and the local time at the descending node is 10:30. The repeat cycle is 26 days and the satellite can provide global imaging coverage. CBERS-1 (Ziyuan-1) and CBERS-2 (Ziyuan-1B) carried three imaging sensors with

The complete article appears in the following publication:
Publication Title Jane's Space Systems and Industry
Publication date Nov 19, 2010
Section Spacecraft - Earth observation
Publication synopsis Profiling hundreds of spacecraft, launchers, manufacturers and operators, Jane's Space Systems and Industry provides a global view of the development, application and support of space-based systems. Human, communications, imaging, scientific, Research & Development and other space applications are covered. Key objectives, developments and technical specifications of launch vehicles and in-service spacecraft are reviewed, including microsatellites and the new generation of small launchers. Space system prime contractors and major suppliers are profiled, with detailed listings of their space-related activities. Civil, military and commercial enterprises that buy, operate and support space technology and systems are covered in detail, supporting market research and procurement requirements.
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