Remote Sensing Glossary Part-2 - Lecture Material - Completely GPS, GIS dan Remote Sensing tutorial -
Remote Sensing Glossary Part-2


SAMII-Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement experiment, carried by Nimbus-7.
SAMS-Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder, carried by Nimbus-7.
satellite-An object in orbit around a celestial body.
saturation-In the IHS system, represents the purity of color. Saturation is also the condition where energy flux exceeds the sensitivity range of a detector.
SBUV-Solar Back-scatter Ultraviolet Instrument, carried by NOAA satellites.
scale-Ratio of distance on an image to the equivalent distance on the ground.
scan line-Narrow strip on the ground that is swept by IFOV of a detector in a scanning system.
scanner-An imaging system in which the IFOV of one or more detectors is swept across the terrain.
scanner distortion-Geometric distortion that is characteristic of cross-track scanner images.
scan skew-Distortion of scanner images caused by forward motion of the aircraft or satellite during the time required to complete a scan.
scattering-Multiple reflections of electromagnetic waves by particles or surfaces.
scattering coefficient curves-Display of scatterometer data in which relative backscatter is shown as a function of incidence angle.
scatterometer-Nonimaging radar device that quantitatively records backscatter of terrain as a function of incidence angle.
scene-Area on the ground that is covered by an image or photograph.
scotopic vision-Vision under conditions of low illumination, when only the rods are sensitive to light. Visual acuity under these conditions is highest in the blue part of the spectrum.
Seasat-NASA unmanned satellite that acquired L-band radar images in 1978.
sensitivity-Degree to which a detector responds to electromagnetic energy incident on it.
sensor-Device that receives electromagnetic radiation and converts it into a signal that can be recorded and displayed as either numerical data or an image.
Shuttle imaging radar (SIR)-L-band radar system deployed on the Space Shuttle.
sidelap-Extent of lateral overlap between images acquired on adjacent flight lines.
side-looking airborne radar (SLAR)-An airborne side scanning system for acquiring radar images.
side-scanning sonar-Active system for acquiring images of the seafloor using pulsed sound waves.
side-scanning system-A system that acquires images of a strip of terrain parallel with the flight or orbit path but offset to one side.
signal-Information recorded by a remote sensing system.
signal to noise radio (S/N)-The ratio of the level of the signal carrying real information to that carrying spurious information as a result of defects in the system.
silver halide-Silver salts that are especially sensitive to visible light and convert to metallic silver when developed.
SIR-Shuttle Imaging Radar, synthetic-aperture radar experiments carried aboard the NASA Space Shuttle in 1981 and 1984. workshop that housed three crews of three astronauts in 1973 and 1974.
skylight-Component of light that is strongly scattered by the atmosphere and consists predominantly of shorter wavelengths.
slant range-In radar, an imaginary line running between the antenna and the target.
slant-range distance-Distance measured along the slant range.
slant-range distortion-Geometric distortion of a slant-range image.
slant-range image-In radar, an image in which objects are located at positions corresponding to their slant-range distances from the aircraft path. On slant-range images, the scale in the range direction is compressed in the near-range region
SLAR-Side-looking airborne radar.
SMIRR-Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer, a non-imaging spectroradiometer carried by the NASA Space Shuttle covering ten narrow wavebands in the 0.5-2.4 m range.
SMMR-Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer, carried by Nimbus-7.
smooth criterion-In radar, the relationship between surface roughness, depression angle, and wavelength that determines whether a surface will scatter the incident radar pulse in a smooth or intermediate fashion.
software-Programs that control computer operations.
sonar-Acronym for sound navigation ranging. Sonar is an active form of remote sensing that employs sonic energy to image the seafloor.
Space Shuttle-U.S. manned satellite program in the 1980s, officially called the Space Transportation System (STS).
Space Station-A planned series of three polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous satellites to be launched by NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Japanese Space Agency in the 1990s. They will carry a large range of remote-sensing devices.
spatial-frequency filtering-The analysis of the spatial variations in DN of an image and the separation or suppression of selected frequency ranges.
specific heat-The ratio of the heat capacity of unit mass of a material to the heat capacity of unit mass of water.
spectral hue-A hue which is present in the spectral range of white light analysed by a prism or diffraction grating.
spectral reflectance-Reflectance of electromagnetic energy at specified wavelength intervals.
spectral sensitivity-Response, or sensitivity, of a film or detector to radiation in different spectral regions.
spectral vegetation index-An index of relative amount and vigor of vegetation. The index is calculated from two spectral bands of AVHRR imagery.
spectrometer-Device for measuring intensity of radiation absorbed or reflected by a materiel as a function of wavelength.
spectroradiometer-A device which measures the energy reflected or radiated by materials in narrow EM wavebands.
spectrum-Continuous sequence of electromagnetic energy arranged according to wavelength or frequency.
specular-Refers to a surface that is smooth with respect to the wavelength of incident energy.
SPOT-Systeme Probatoire d'Observation del la Terre. Unmanned French remote sensing satellite orbiting in the late 1980s.
Stefan-Boltzmann constant- 5.68 x 10 -12 W . cm-2 .K-4.
Stefan-Boltzmann law-States that radiant flux of a blackbody is equal to the temperature to the fourth power times the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.
Stereo base-Distance between a pair of correlative points on a stereo pair that are oriented for stereo viewing.
stereo model-Three-dimensional visual impression produced by viewing a pair of overlapping images through a stereoscope.
stereo pair-Two overlapping images or photographs that may be viewed stereoscopically.
stereopsis-The ability for objects to be perceived in three dimensions as a result of the parallax differences produced by the eye base.
stereoscope-Binocular optical device for viewing overlapping images or diagrams. The left eye sees only the left image, and the right eye sees only the right image.
SSU-Stratosphere Sounding Unit, carried by NOAA-series satellites.
subscene-A portion of an image that is used for detailed analysis.
subtractive primary colors-Yellow, magenta, and cyan. When used as filters for white light, these colors remove blue, green and red light, respectively.
sunglint-Bright reflectance of sunlight caused by ripples on water
sun-synchronous-Earth satellite orbit in which the orbit plane is nearly polar and the altitude is such that the satellite passes over all places on earth having the same latitude twice daily at the same local sun time.
sun-synchronous orbit-a polar orbit where the satellite always crosses the Equator at the same local solar time.
supervised classification-Digital-information extraction technique in which the operator provides training-site information that the computer uses to assign pixels to categories.
surface phenomenon-Interaction between electromagnetic radiation and the surface of a material.
surface roughness-See roughness.
synthetic-aperture radar (SAR)-Radar system in which high azimuth resolution is achieved by storing and processing data on the Doppler shift of multiple return pulses in such a way as to give the effect of a much longer antenna.
synthetic stereo images-Stereo images constructed through digital processing of a single image. Topographic data are used to calculate parallax.
system-Combination of components that constitute an imaging device.
systematic distortion-Geometric irregularities on images that are caused by known and predictable characteristics.


target-Object on the terrain of specific interest in a remote sensing investigation.
TDRS-Tracking and Data Relay Satellite
telemeter-To transmit data by radio or microwave links.
terrain-Surface of the earth.
texture-Frequency of change and arrangement of tones on an image.
Thematic Mapper (TM)- A cross-track scanner deployed on Landsat that records seven bands of data from the visible through the thermal IR regions.
thermal capacity (c )- See heat capacity.
thermal conductivity (K)- Measure of the rate at which heat will pass through a material, expressed in calories per centimeter per second per degree Centigrade.
thermal crossover-On a plot of radiant temperature versus time, the point at which temperature curves for two different materials intersect.
thermal diffusivity (k)- Governs the rate at which temperature changes within a substance, expressed in centimeters squared per second.
thermal inertia (P)-Measure of the response of a material to temperature changes, expressed in calories per square centimeter per square root of second.
thermal IR-IR region from 3 to 14 µm that is employed in remote sensing. This spectral region spans the radiant power peak of the earth.
thermal IR image- Image acquired by a scanner that records radiation within the thermal IR band.
thermal IR multispectral scanner (TIMS)- Airborne scanner that acquires multispectral images within the 8-to-14mm band of the thermal IR region.
thermal model-Mathematical expression that relates thermal and other physical properties of a material to its temperature. Models may be used to predict temperature for given properties and conditions.
thermography-Medical applications of thermal IR images. Images of the body, called thermograms, have been used to detect tumors and monitor blood circulation.
THIR-Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer, carried by Nimbus-7.
tie-point-A point on the ground which is common to two images. Several are used in the coregistration of images.
TIMS-Thermal IR multispectral scanner.
TM-Thematic mapper.
tone-Each distinguishable shade of gray from white to black on an image.
topographic inversion-An optical illusion that may occur on images with extensive shades. Ridges appear to be valleys, and valleys appear to be ridges. The illusion is corrected by orienting the image so that the shadows trend from the top margin of the image to the bottom.
topographic reversal-A geomorphic phenomenon in which topographic lows coincide with structural highs and vice versa. Valleys are eroded on crests of anticlines to cause topographic lows, and synclines form ridge, or topographic highs.
TOVS-TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder.
Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-Geostationary satellite used to communicate between ground receiving stations and satellite such as Landsat.
training area-A sample of the Earth's surface with known properties; the statistics of the imaged data within the area are used to determine decision boundaries in classification.
trade-off-As a result of changing one factor in a remote sensing system, there are compensating changes elsewhere in the system; such a compensating change is known as a trade-off.
training site-Area of terrain with known properties or characteristics that is used in supervised classification.
transmissivity-Property of a material that determines the amount of energy that can pass through the material.
transparency-Image on a transparent photographic material, normally a positive image.
transpiration-Expulsion of water vapor and oxygen by vegetation.
travel time-In radar, the time interval between the generation of a pulse of microwave energy and its return from the terrain.
tristimulus colour theory-A theory of colour relating all hues to the combined effects of three additive primary colours corresponding to the sensitivities of the three types of cone on the retina.


unsupervised classification-Digital information extraction technique in which the computer assigns pixels to categories with no instructions from the operator.
UV-Ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging in wavelengths from 0.01 to 0.4m.


variance-A measure of the dispersion of the actual values of a variable about its mean. It is the mean of the squares of all the deviations from the mean value of a range of data.
VAS- Atmospheric Sounder, carried by GEOS satellites
vector format-The expression of points, lines, and areas on a map by digitized Cartesian coordinates, directions, and values.
vegetation anomaly-Deviation from the normal distribution or properties of vegetation. Vegetation anomalies may be caused by faults, trace elements in soil, or other factors.
vertical exaggeration-In a stereo model, the extent to which the vertical scale appears larger than the horizontal scale.
vidicon-An imaging device based on a sheet of transparent material whose electrical conductivity increases with the intensity of EM radiation falling on it. The variation in conductivity across the plate is measured by a sweeping electron beam and converted into a video signal. Now largely replaced by cameras employing arrays of charge-coupled devices (CCDs).
vignetting-A gradual change in overall tone of an image from the centre outwards, caused by the imaging device gathering less radiation from the periphery of its field of view than from the centre. Most usually associated with the radially increasing angel between a lens and the Earth's surface, and the corresponding decrease in the light-gathering capacity of the lens.
visible radiation-Energy at wavelengths from 0.4 to 0.7mm that is detectable by the human eye.
visual dissonance-The disturbing effect of seeing a familiar object in an unfamiliar setting or in an unexpected colour.
VISSR- Visible Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer carried by the GOES satellites.
volume scattering-In radar, interaction between electromagnetic radiation and the interior of a material.


watt (W)-Unit of electrical power equal to rate of work done by one ampere under a potential of one volt.
wavelength-Distance between successive wave crests or other equivalent points in a harmonic wave.
Wien's displacement law-Describes the shift of the radiant power peak to shorter wavelengths as temperature increases.


X band-Radar wavelength region from 2.4 to 3.8 cm.


yaw-Rotation of an aircraft about its vertical axis so that the longitudinal axis deviates left or right from the flight line.